The reference for this problem and its solution is Martin Gardner,
*Martin Gardner's Sixth Book of Mathematical Games from Scientific
American*, chapter 25. The following solution is quoted from Gardner.

- [This simply states the 24 symbols.]
- [This identifies the first 10 symbols (
*A*through*J*) with the numbers 1 through 10.] - [Symbols for ``plus'' and ``equals'' are introduced.] 1+1=2; 1+1+1=3; 1+1+1+1=4. 1+1=2; 2+1=3; 3+1=4; 4+1=5. 2+5=7; 7=5+2. 6+4=10; 10=6+4.
- [The minus sign is introduced.] 3-1=2; 4-1=3; 9-7=2.
- [Zero is introduced.] 3+0=3; 8+0=8. 4-4=0; 5-5=0.
- [Positional notation, based on 10, is introduced.
*J*=*AN*translates*J*into the decimal form 10.] 10+1=11; 10+2=12; 11+1=12. 10+10=20; 10+10+10=30. 60+7=67. - [The multiplication symbol is introduced.] ; ; .
- [The division symbol is introduced.] ; ; .
- [Exponents are introduced.] ; .
- [Symbols for 100 and 1,000 are introduced.] ; . ; .
- [Symbols for 1/10 and 1/100 are introduced.] ; .
- [The decimal sign is introduced.] 1/10=.1; ; . 1/100=.01; . ; . ; .
- [The sign for ``approximately equal to'' is introduced.] ; . [The sign for is introduced.] .
- .

Wed Sep 16 09:26:16 EDT 1998